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This article is about radio antenna science and technology
For radio broadcasting antennas, see Radio broadcasting. For the antenna device, see Radio receiver.
Radio is the technology of signaling and communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz). They are generated by an electronic device called a transmitter connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, and received by another antenna connected to a radio receiver. Radio is very widely used in modern technology, in radio communication, radar, radio navigation, remote control, remote sensing, and other wire antenna applications.
In radio communication, used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way radios, wireless networking, and satellite communication, among numerous other uses, radio waves are used to carry information across space from a transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio signal (impressing an information signal on the radio wave by varying some aspect of the wave) in the transmitter. In radar, used to locate and track objects like aircraft, ships, spacecraft and missiles, a beam of radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter reflects off the target object, and the reflected waves reveal the object’s location.
In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR, a mobile receiver accepts radio signals from navigational radio beacons whose position is known, and by precisely measuring the arrival time of the radio waves the receiver can calculate its position on Earth. In wireless radio remote control devices like drones, garage door openers, and key-less entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device control the actions of a remote device.
Applications of radio waves that do not involve transmitting the waves significant distances, such as RF heating used in industrial processes and microwave ovens, and medical uses such as diathermy and MRI machines, are not usually called radio. The noun radio is also used to mean a broadcast radio receiver.
The existence of radio waves was first proven by German physicist Heinrich Hertz on November 11, 1886. In the mid 1890s, building on techniques physicists were using to study electromagnetic waves, Guglielmo Marconi developed the first apparatus for long-distance radio communication, sending a wireless Morse Code message to a source over a wire antenna near a kilometer away in 1895, and the first transatlantic signal on December 12, 1901. The first commercial radio broadcast was transmitted on November 2, 1920 when the live returns of the Harding-Cox presidential election were broadcast by Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company in Pittsburgh, under the call sign KDKA.
The emission of radio waves is regulated by law, coordinated by an international body called the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which allocates frequency bands in the radio spectrum for different uses.
Radio Antenna Technology
Radio waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration. They are generated artificially by time varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing back and forth in a metal conductor called an antenna, thus accelerating. In transmission, a transmitter generates an alternating current of radio frequency which is applied to an antenna. The wire antenna radiates the power in the current as radio waves. When the waves strike the antenna of a radio receiver, they push the electrons in the metal back and forth, inducing a tiny alternating current. The radio receiver connected to the receiving antenna detects this oscillating current and amplifies it.
As they travel farther from the transmitting antenna, radio waves spread out so their signal strength (intensity in watts per square meter) decreases, so radio transmissions can only be received within a limited range of the transmitter, the distance depending on the transmitter power, the antenna radiation pattern, receiver sensitivity, noise level, and presence of obstructions between transmitter and receiver. An omni-directional antenna transmits or receives radio waves in all directions, while a directional antenna or high-gain antenna transmits radio waves in a beam in a particular direction, or receives waves from only one direction.
Radio waves travel through a vacuum at the speed of light, and in the air at very close to the speed of light. So the wavelength of a radio wave, the distance in meters between adjacent crests of the wave, is inversely proportional to its frequency, equal to the speed of light divided by the frequency.
The other types of electromagnetic waves besides radio waves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays, can also carry information and be used for communication. The wide use of radio waves for telecommunication is mainly due to their desirable propagation properties stemming from their large wavelength.Radio waves have the ability to pass through the atmosphere in any weather, foliage, and most building materials, and by diffraction can bend around obstructions, and unlike other electromagnetic waves, they tend to be scattered rather than absorbed by objects larger than their wavelength.
Radio communication. Information such as sound is converted by a transducer such as a microphone to an electrical signal, which modulates a radio wave produced by the transmitter. A receiver intercepts the radio wave through a wire antenna and extracts the information-bearing modulation signal, which is converted back to a human usable form with another transducer such as a loudspeaker.
Comparison of AM and FM modulated radio waves
In radio communication systems, information is carried across space using radio waves. At the sending end, the information to be sent is converted by some type of transducer to a time-varying electrical signal called the modulation signal. The modulation signal may be an audio signal representing sound from a microphone, a video signal representing moving images from a video camera, or a digital signal consisting of a sequence of bits representing binary data from a computer. The modulation signal is applied to a radio transmitter. In the transmitter, an electronic oscillator generates an alternating current oscillating at a radio frequency, called the carrier wave because it serves to “carry” the information through wire antenna into the air. The information signal is used to modulate the carrier, varying some aspect of the carrier wave, impressing the information on the carrier.
Different radio systems use different modulation methods:
Many other types of modulation are also used.
In some types, a carrier wave is not transmitted but just one or both modulation sidebands. The modulated carrier is amplified in the transmitter and applied to a transmitting antenna which radiates the energy as radio waves. The radio waves carry the information to the receiver location.
At the receiver, the radio wave induces a tiny oscillating voltage in the receiving antenna which is a weaker replica of the current in the transmitting antenna. This voltage is applied to the radio receiver, which amplifies the weak radio signal so it is stronger, then demodulates it, extracting the original modulation signal from the modulated carrier wave. The modulation signal is converted by a transducer back to a human-usable form: an audio signal is converted to sound waves by a loudspeaker or earphones, a video signal is converted to images by a display, while a digital signal is applied to a computer or microprocessor, which interacts with human users.
The radio waves from many transmitters pass through the air simultaneously without interfering with each other because each transmitter’s radio waves oscillate at a different rate, in other words, each transmitter has a different frequency, measured in hertz (Hz), kilohertz (kHz), megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz). The receiving antenna typically picks up the radio signals of many transmitters. The receiver uses tuned circuits to select the radio signal desired out of all the signals picked up by the wire antenna and reject the others. A tuned circuit (also called resonant circuit or tank circuit) acts like a resonator, similarly to a tuning fork. It has a natural resonant frequency at which it oscillates.
The resonant frequency of the receiver’s tuned circuit is adjusted by the user to the frequency of the desired radio station; this is called “tuning”. The oscillating radio signal from the desired station causes the tuned circuit to resonate, oscillate in sympathy, and it passes the signal on to the rest of the receiver. Radio signals at other frequencies are blocked by the tuned circuit and not passed on.
Radio Antenna Bandwidth
Frequency spectrum of a typical modulated AM or FM radio signal. It consists of a component C at the carrier wave frequency with the information (modulation) contained in two narrow bands of frequencies called sidebands (SB) just above and below the carrier frequency.
A modulated radio antenna wave, carrying an information signal, occupies a range of frequencies. See diagram. The information (modulation) in a radio signal is usually concentrated in narrow frequency bands called sidebands (SB) just above and below the carrier frequency. The width in hertz of the frequency range that the radio signal occupies, the highest frequency minus the lowest frequency, is called its bandwidth (BW).
For any given signal-to-noise ratio, an amount of bandwidth can carry the same amount of information (data rate in bits per second) regardless of where in the radio frequency spectrum it is located, so bandwidth is a measure of information-carrying capacity. The bandwidth required by a radio transmission depends on the data rate of the information (modulation signal) being sent, and the spectral efficiency of the modulation method used; how much data it can transmit in each kilohertz of bandwidth. Different types of information signals carried by radio have different data rates. For example, a television (video) signal has a greater data rate than an audio signal
The radio spectrum, the total range of radio frequencies that can be used for communication in a given area, is a limited resource. Each radio transmission occupies a portion of the total bandwidth available. Radio bandwidth is regarded as an economic good which has a monetary cost and is in increasing demand. In some parts of the radio spectrum, the right to use a frequency band or even a single radio channel is bought and sold for millions of dollars. So there is an incentive to employ technology to minimize the bandwidth used by radio service.
Because it is a fixed resource which is in demand by an increasing number of users, the radio spectrum has become increasingly congested in recent decades, and the need to use it more effectively is driving many additional radio innovations such as trunked radio systems, spread spectrum (ultra-wideband) transmission, frequency reuse, dynamic spectrum management, frequency pooling, and cognitive radio.
ITU frequency bands
The ITU arbitrarily divides the radio spectrum into 12 bands, each beginning at a wavelength which is a power of ten (10n) metres, with corresponding frequency of 3 times a power of ten, and each covering a decade of frequency or wavelength. Each of these bands has a traditional name:
Band name Abbreviation Frequency Wavelength Band name Abbreviation Frequency Wavelength
Extremely low frequency ELF 3 – 30 Hz 100,000–10,000 km High frequency HF 3 – 30 MHz 100–10 m
Super low frequency SLF 30 – 300 Hz 10,000–1,000 km Very high frequency VHF 30 – 300 MHz 10–1 m
Ultra low frequency ULF 300 – 3000 Hz 1,000–100 km Ultra high frequency UHF 300 – 3000 MHz 100–10 cm
Very low frequency VLF 3 – 30 kHz 100–10 km Super high frequency SHF 3 – 30 GHz 10–1 cm
Low frequency LF 30 – 300 kHz 10–1 km Extremely high frequency EHF 30 – 300 GHz 10–1 mm
Medium frequency MF 300 – 3000 kHz 1000–100 m Tremendously high frequency THF 300 – 3000 GHz 1–0.1 mm
It can be seen that the bandwidth, the range of frequencies, contained in each band is not equal but increases exponentially as the frequency increases; each band contains ten times the bandwidth of the preceding band. The greater bandwidth available has motivated a continuing trend to exploit higher frequencies throughout.
Further information: Radio communication service
The airwaves are a resource shared by many users. Two radio transmitters in the same area that attempt to transmit on the same frequency will interfere with each other, causing garbled reception, so neither transmission may be received clearly. Interference with radio transmissions can not only have a large economic cost, it can be life-threatening (for example, in the case of interference with emergency communications or air traffic control)
To prevent interference between different users, the emission of radio waves is strictly regulated by national laws, coordinated by an international body, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which allocates bands in the radio spectrum for different uses. Radio transmitters must be licensed by governments, under a variety of license classes depending on use, and are restricted to certain frequencies and power levels. In some classes, such as radio and television broadcasting stations, the transmitter is given a unique identifier consisting of a string of letters and numbers called a call sign, which must be used in all transmissions. The radio operator must hold a government license, such as the general radiotelephone operator license in the US, obtained by taking a test demonstrating adequate technical and legal knowledge of safe radio operation.
Exceptions to the above rules allow the unlicensed operation by the public of low power short-range transmitters in consumer products such as cell phones, cordless phones, wireless devices, walkie-talkies, citizens band radios, wireless microphones, garage door openers, and baby monitors. In the US, these fall under Part 15 of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations. Many of these devices use the ISM bands, a series of frequency bands throughout the radio spectrum reserved for unlicensed use. Although they can be operated without a license, like all radio equipment these devices generally must be type-approved before the sale.
Radio Antenna Applications
Below are some of the most important uses of radio, organized by function.
Broadcasting * Further information: Broadcasting * AM radio station antenna * FM radio station * Television station * Broadcasting antennas.
Broadcasting is the one-way wire antenna transmission of information from a transmitter to receivers belonging to a public audience. Since the radio waves become weaker with distance, a broadcasting station can only be received within a limited distance of its transmitter. Systems that broadcast from satellites can generally be received over an entire country or continent. Older terrestrial radio and television are paid for by commercial advertising or governments. In subscription systems like satellite television and satellite radio the customer pays a monthly fee. In these systems, the radio signal is encrypted and can only be decrypted by the receiver, which is controlled by the company and can be deactivated if the customer doesn’t pay the bill.
Broadcasting uses several parts of the radio spectrum, depending on the type of signals transmitted and the desired target audience. Long-wave and medium wave signals can give reliable coverage of areas several hundred kilometers across, but have the more limited information-carrying capacity and so work best with audio signals (speech and music), and the sound quality can be degraded by radio noise from natural and artificial sources. The shortwave bands have a greater potential range but are more subject to interference by distant stations and varying atmospheric conditions that affect reception.
In the very high frequency band, greater than 30 megahertz, the Earth’s atmosphere has less of an effect on the range of signals, and line-of-sight propagation becomes the principal mode. These higher frequencies wire antenna permits greater bandwidth required for television broadcasting. Since natural and artificial noise sources are less present at these frequencies, high-quality audio transmission is possible, using frequency modulation.
Audio: Radio Antenna Main article; Radio broadcasting
Radio broadcasting means transmission of audio (sound) to radio receivers belonging to a public audience. Analog audio is the earliest form of radio broadcast. AM broadcasting began around 1920. FM broadcasting was introduced in the late 1930s with improved fidelity. A broadcast radio receiver is called a radio. Most radios can receive both AM and FM and are called AM/FM receivers.
Television receiver * Video: Television Antenna Main article; Television
Television broadcasting is the transmission of moving images by radio, which consist of sequences of still images, which are displayed on a screen on a television receiver (a “television” or TV) along with a synchronized audio (sound) channel. Television (video) signals occupy a wider bandwidth than broadcast radio (audio) signals. Analog television, the original television technology, required 6 MHz, so the television frequency bands are divided into 6 MHz channels, now called “RF channels”.
The current television standard, introduced beginning in 2006, is a digital format called high-definition television (HDTV), which transmits pictures at higher resolution, typically 1080 pixels high by 1920 pixels wide, at a rate of 25 or 30 frames per second. Digital television (DTV) transmission systems, which replaced older analog television in a transition beginning in 2006, use image compression and high-efficiency digital modulation such as OFDM and 8VSB to transmit HDTV video within a smaller bandwidth than the old analog wire antenna channels, saving scarce radio spectrum space.
Therefore, each of the 6 MHz analog RF channels now carries up to 7 DTV channels – these are called “virtual channels”. Digital television receivers have different behavior in the presence of poor reception or noise than analog television, called the “digital cliff” effect. Unlike analog television, in which increasingly poor reception causes the picture quality to gradually degrade, in digital television picture quality is not affected by poor reception until, at a certain point, the receiver stops working and the screen goes black.
Satellite television dish
Government standard frequency and time signal services operate time radio stations which continuously broadcast extremely accurate time signals produced by atomic clocks, as a reference to synchronize other clocks. One use is in radio clocks and watches, which include an automated receiver that periodically (usually weekly) receives and decodes the time signal and resets the watch’s internal quartz clock to the correct time, thus allowing a small watch or desk clock to have the same accuracy as an atomic clock. Government time stations are declining in number because GPS satellites and the Internet Network Time Protocol (NTP) provide equally accurate time standards.
Two-way voice communication Main article: Two-way radio antenna
A two-way radio is an audio transceiver, a receiver and transmitter in the same device, used for bidirectional person-to-person voice communication with other users with similar radios. An older term for this mode of communication is radiotelephony. The radio link may be half-duplex, as in a walkie-talkie, using a single radio channel in which only one radio can transmit at a time, so different users take turns talking, pressing a “push to talk” button on their radio which switches off the receiver and switches on the transmitter. Or the radio link may be full duplex, a bidirectional link using two radio channels so both people can talk at the same time, as in a cell phone.
Satellite phones, showing the large antennas needed to communicate with the satellite * Firefighter using walkie-talkie * VHF marine radio on a ship * One-way voice communication * One way, unidirectional radio transmission is called simplex. * Data communication * Further information: Data transmission, Telemetry, and Wireless * Laptop computer with Wi-Fi and typical home wireless router (right) connecting it to the Internet * Parabolic antennas of microwave relay links on tower in Australia * RFID tag from a DVD * Space communication * Satellite Communications Center Dubna in Russia.
This is radio communication between a spacecraft and an Earth-based ground station, or another spacecraft. Communication with spacecraft involves the longest transmission distances of any radio links, up to billions of kilometers for interplanetary spacecraft. In order to receive the weak signals from distant spacecraft, satellite ground stations use large parabolic “dish” antennas up to 25 metres (82 ft) in diameter and extremely sensitive receivers.
High frequencies in the microwave band are used, since microwaves pass through the ionosphere without refraction, and at microwave frequencies the high-gain antennas needed to focus the radio energy into a narrow beam pointed at the receiver are small and take up a minimum of space in a satellite. Portions of the UHF, L, C, S, ku and ka band are allocated for space communication. A radio link that transmits data from the Earth’s surface to a spacecraft is called an uplink, while a link that transmits data from the spacecraft to the ground is called a downlink.
Radar: Main article; Radar antenna
Radar is a radiolocation method used to locate and track aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, ships, vehicles, and also to map weather patterns and terrain. A radar set consists of a transmitter and receiver. The transmitter emits a narrow beam of radio waves which is swept around the surrounding space. When the beam strikes a target object, radio waves are reflected back to the receiver.
The direction of the beam reveals the object’s location. Since radio waves travel at a constant speed close to the speed of light, by measuring the brief time delay between the outgoing pulse and the received “echo”, the range to the target can be calculated. The targets are often displayed graphically on a map display called a radar screen. Doppler radar can measure a moving object’s velocity, by measuring the change in frequency of the return radio waves due to the Doppler effect.
Radar sets mainly use high frequencies in the microwave bands, because these frequencies create strong reflections from objects the size of vehicles and can be focused into narrow beams with compact antennas. Parabolic (dish) antennas are widely used. In most radars the transmitting antenna also serves as the receiving antenna; this is called a monostatic radar. A radar which uses separate transmitting and receiving antennas is called a bistatic radar.
ASR-8 airport surveillance radar antenna. It rotates once every 4.8 seconds. The rectangular antenna on top is the secondary radar.
Radiolocation: Main article; Radiolocation
Radiolocation is a generic term covering a variety of techniques that use radio waves to find the location of objects, or for navigation
A personal navigation assistant GPS receiver in a car, which can give driving directions to a destination.
EPIRB emergency locator beacon on a ship * Wildlife officer tracking radio-tagged mountain lion .
Remote control: Main article; Radio control
Radio remote control is the use of electronic control signals sent by radio waves from a transmitter to an wire antenna control the actions of a device at a remote location. Remote control systems may also include telemetry channels in the other direction, used to transmit real-time information of the state of the device back to the control station. Unmanned spacecraft are an example of remote controlled machines, controlled by commands transmitted by satellite ground stations.
Most handheld remote controls used to control consumer electronics products like televisions or DVD players actually operate by infrared light rather than radio waves, so are not examples of radio remote control. A security concern with remote control systems is spoofing, in which an unauthorized person transmits an imitation of the control signal to take control of the device. Examples of radio remote control:
Remote keyless entry fob for a car * Quadcopter, a popular remote-controlled toy * Jamming.
Radio jamming is the deliberate radiation of radio signals designed to interfere with the reception of other radio signals. Jamming devices are called “signal suppressors” or “interference generators” or just jammers.
During wartime, militaries use jamming to interfere with enemies’ tactical radio communication. Since radio waves can pass beyond national borders, some totalitarian countries which practice censorship use jamming to prevent their citizens from listening to broadcasts from radio stations in other countries. Jamming is usually accomplished by a powerful transmitter which generates noise on the same frequency as the target transmitter. US Federal law prohibits the nonmilitary operation or sale of any type of jamming devices, including ones that interfere with GPS, cellular, Wi-Fi and police radars.
Scientific antenna research
Radio astronomy is the scientific study of radio waves emitted by astronomical objects. Radio astronomers use radio telescopes, large radio antennas and receivers, to receive and study the radio waves from astronomical radio sources. Since astronomical radio sources are so far away, the radio waves from them are extremely weak, requiring extremely sensitive receivers, and radio telescopes are the most sensitive radio receivers in existence. They use large parabolic (dish) antennas up to 500 meters (2,000 ft) in diameter to collect enough radio wave energy to study.
The RF front end electronics of the receiver is often cooled by liquid nitrogen to reduce thermal noise. Multiple antennas are often linked together in arrays which function as a single antenna, to increase collecting power. In Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) radio telescopes on different continents are linked, which can achieve the resolution of an wire antenna thousands of miles in diameter.
Remote sensing – in radio, remote sensing is the reception of electromagnetic waves radiated by natural objects or the atmosphere for scientific research. All warm objects emit microwaves and the spectrum emitted can be used to determine temperature. Microwave radiometers are used in meteorology and earth sciences to determine temperature of the atmosphere and earth surface, as well as chemical reactions in the atmosphere.